|The Bard ca 1871 painted by John Martin 1789-1854|
On a rock, whose haughty brow
Frowns o'er old Conway's foaming flood
Robed in the sable garb of woe
With haggard eyes the Poet stood;
(Loose his beard, and hoary hair
Stream'd, like a meteor, to the troubled air)
And with a Master's hand, and Prophet's fire
Struck the deep sorrows of his lyre."
from The Bard ca 1755 by Thomas Gray 1716-1771
In the image, above, a bard strikes a defiant posture as the British army pursues him. The castle in the background is a powerful symbol of the dominance King Edward I exerted over the defeated Welsh. Despite his conquest, Edward did not feel secure. To prevent the bards from rallying the Welsh people with stories of their country's past glory, he ordered their massacre. The poem bears the same title as the painting and is about the same event.
'Bard' was the Celtic term for a professional poet. The word appears with spelling variations in all Celtic languages with writings extant today, ancient Gaulish, Irish, Welsh, and Scottish Gaelic. The word may also have been used in Brittany and Cornwall.
Between the 12th and 17th centuries, the bards of Ireland, Wales, and Scotland bards were trained in the arts in small schools in which they earned degrees and were segmented into orders. One of their functions was to train the sons of aristocrats in poetic disciplines. Bards watched over genealogies, traditions, and law. This made them highly influential within their culture.
Edward's fear of the bards vividly illustrates the power of story.
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About Janalyn VoigtDawnSinger, my debut novel and the first installment in the Tales of Faeraven epic fantasy series, released with Harbourlight Books in 2012. Wayfarer, book two in the series will release in 2013. My other projects include DawnKing, book three in my medieval epic fantasy series and a romantic suspense novel set in a castle.
I love to help readers escape into creative worlds of fiction.
My spare time activities include reading, gardening, and finding adventures with my family in the great outdoors.