Black Powder was around long before the 19th century. There were some significant changes in black powder during this century. Below is a brief outline with some tidbits for you. Please note that it wasn't until 1890 that the term black powder was used, prior to that it was simply called powder. Primarily the change in the name was due to the change in use of the smokeless power (white powder)
Brought about a change in the standard composition of black powder around the world. 15/2/3 of KNO/S/C (elements of the periodic table)
DuPont Powder Mill Established.
Prior to DuPont there were no quality control or regulations on the size of the grain of your powder. So, you'd find out which powder worked best for your weapon and used it.
DuPont becomes America's largest powder producer.
Smokeless powder comes into use.
Europe developes Granulations for specific use
William Bickford (English) invented the first safety fuse.
Ascanio Sobrero (Italian) discovered Nitroglycerin
Nitroglycerin is a mixture of nitric acid, sulphuric acid, and glycerol
Christian Schonbein discovered nitrocellulose or guncotton
Joseph Wilbrand (German) invented Trinitrotoluene (TNT)
The California Powder Works produced it's first powder. Expanded with the Chinese labor force.
Saltpeter (key ingredient of black powder) is in somewhat short supply in East
Saltpeter is now imported from India
Peyton Powder was composed of nitroglycerin, nitrocellulose, ammonium picrate (smokeless & semi-smokeless powder)
Albert Nobel invented the blasting cap.
Albert Nobel patented Dynamite
Albert Nobel invented Ballistite a smokeless powder
Sir James Dewar & Sir Frederick Abel invented Cordite (Another smokeless powder)
The first appearence of the term Black Powder
Military drops Black Powder as prinicipal small arms propellant
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